Tentative Exploratory Findings

But aimlessly exploring data means a lot of opportunities for false positives and truth inflation. If in your explorations you find an interesting correlation, the standard procedure is to collect a new dataset and test the hypothesis again. Testing an independent dataset will filter out false positives and leave any legitimate discoveries standing. (Of course, you’ll need to ensure your test dataset is sufficiently powered to replicate your findings.) And so exploratory findings should be considered tentative until confirmed.

If you don’t collect a new dataset or your new dataset is strongly related to the old one, truth inflation will come back to bite you in the butt.

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