# Perfology / Statistics

In the scope of Perfology, we review existing statistical approaches and adjust them to the tasks of performance analysis. We advocate Eclectic Statistics and adopt all statistical paradigms focusing on those that are most suitable for the given problem. While we intensively use Robust Statistics and Nonparametric Statistics, we also suggest their generalizations as Defensive Statistics and Pragmatic Statistics.

### Books (23)

- Statistics Done Wrong: The Woefully Complete Guide (2015) by Alex Reinhart 4
- Improving Your Statistical Inferences (2022) by Daniël Lakens
- The Fundamentals of Heavy Tails: Properties, Emergence, and Estimation (2022) by Jayakrishnan Nair et al.
- Introduction to Robust Estimation and Hypothesis Testing (2021) by Rand R. Wilcox 2
- Introduction to the New Statistics: Estimation, Open Science, and Beyond (2016) by Geoff Cumming
- Understanding the New Statistics (Multivariate Applications Series) (2011) by Geoff Cumming
- The Essential Guide to Effect Sizes: Statistical Power, Meta-Analysis, and the Interpretation o... (2010) by Paul D. Ellis
- Statistical Consequences of Fat Tails: Real World Preasymptotics, Epistemology, and Application... (2020) by Nassim Nicholas Taleb
- Bayesian Statistics the Fun Way: Understanding Statistics and Probability with Star Wars, LEGO,... (2019) by Will Kurt
- Robust Statistics: Theory and Methods (With R) (2019) by Ricardo A Maronna et al. 1
- Introduction to Empirical Bayes: Examples from Baseball Statistics (2017) by David Robinson
- Statistical Rethinking: A Bayesian Course with Examples in R and Stan (2015) by Richard McElreath
- Doing Bayesian Data Analysis: A Tutorial with R, JAGS, and Stan (2014) by John K. Kruschke
- Ggplot2: Elegant Graphics for Data Analysis (Use R!) (2010) by Hadley Wickham
- Robust Statistics (2009) by Peter J. Huber et al. 2
- Statistics (2007) by David Freedman
- The Lady Tasting Tea: How Statistics Revolutionized Science in the Twentieth Century (2002) by David Salsburg
- Statistical Analysis of Extreme Values: With Applications to Insurance, Finance, Hydrology and ... (2001) by Rolf-Dieter Reiß et al.
- Statistical Evidence: A Likelihood Paradigm (1997) by Richard Royall
- What If There Were No Significance Tests? (Multivariate Applications) (1997) by Lisa L. Harlow
- Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences (1988) by Jacob Cohen
- Robust statistics: The Approach Based on Influence Functions (1986) by Frank R. Hampel et al. 3
- How to Lie with Statistics (1982) by Darrell Huff

### Excerpts (113)

- A Cumulative Evidence Base in Psychology (2023) by Malte Elson et al.
- A jingle-jangle of Labels (2023) by Malte Elson et al.
- An Enormous Threat (2023) by Malte Elson et al.
- Hunter is Affected by Strong Noise (2023) by Matt Fleming et al. 1
- Pareto vs. Gaussian (2022) by Jayakrishnan Nair et al.
- Distributions Are Never Normal (2021) by Rand R. Wilcox et al.
- Decision Maker Protagonist (2020) by Simone Cerreia-Vioglio et al.
- The Models Are Misspecified (2020) by Simone Cerreia-Vioglio et al.
- Illusions in Our Brains (2018) by Hans Rosling et al.
- Analytically Calculating Power Can Be Difﬁcult or Downright Impossible (2015) by Alex Reinhart et al.
- Counterintuitiveness of Significance Testing (2015) by Alex Reinhart et al.
- Critique of McClintock's Study of Human Menstrual Cycles (2015) by Alex Reinhart et al. 1
- How to Lie with Smoking Statistics (2015) by Alex Reinhart et al.
- Journal’s Impact Factor and Overestimation of Effect Sizes (2015) by Alex Reinhart et al.
- Noise and Real Effects (2015) by Alex Reinhart et al.
- On the Triumph of Mediocrity in Business (2015) by Alex Reinhart et al.
- Sphygmomanometer (2015) by Alex Reinhart et al.
- Statistical Reforms (2015) by Alex Reinhart et al.
- Tentative Exploratory Findings (2015) by Alex Reinhart et al.
- Truth Inflation (2015) by Alex Reinhart et al.
- Truth Inflation and Groundbreaking Effect Sizes in top-ranked Journals (2015) by Alex Reinhart et al.
- Your Eyeball (2015) by Alex Reinhart et al.
- Black and White Medical Conclusions (2013) by James McCormack et al.
- Recommendations on Presenting of Statistical Results in Medical Literature (2013) by James McCormack et al.
- Same Data, Different Results (2013) by James McCormack et al.
- Statistical Practices in high-impact Journals (2013) by Patrizio E Tressoldi et al.
- The Neuroscience of Low Statistical Power (2013) by Katherine S Button et al.
- Questionable Practices (2012) by Leslie K John et al.
- The 3% Usage of Power Analysis (2012) by Astrid Fritz et al.
- Easy to Publish (2011) by Joseph P Simmons et al.
- Guidelines for Reviewers (2011) by Joseph P Simmons et al.
- Incorrect Statistical Procedures in Neuroscience (2011) by Sander Nieuwenhuis et al.
- Requirements for Authors (2011) by Joseph P Simmons et al.
- The Influence of Journal Prestige on the Inflation of Effect Sizes in Small Trials (2011) by Konstantinos CM Siontis et al.
- Equivalence Testing and FDA Regulations (2010) by Stefan Wellek et al.
- Equivalence vs. Noninferiority (2010) by Stefan Wellek et al.
- Look Elsewhere Effect in Physics (2010) by Eilam Gross et al.
- Pseudoreplication in Neuroscience Research: (2010) by Stanley E Lazic et al.
- The Indifference Zone (2010) by Stefan Wellek et al.
- Type M and Type S Errors (2009) by A Gelman et al.
- Dichotomization Should Be Avoided in Most Cases (2008) by Valerii Fedorov et al.
- Efficiency Loss of Dichotomization (2008) by Valerii Fedorov et al.
- Rules of Smaple Size Planning (2008) by Scott E Maxwell et al.
- Twelve P-Value Misconceptions (2008) by Steven Goodman et al.
- Three Dangerous Statistical Equations (2007) by Howard Wainer et al.
- Early Stopping of Rcts (2005) by Victor M Montori et al.
- Misunderstanding of Confidence Intervals and Standard Error Bars (2005) by Sarah Belia et al.
- Statistical Misleadingness of Error Bars (2005) by John R Lanzante et al.
- The Null Field (2005) by John PA Ioannidis et al.
- The Statistical Accessibility of Medical Papers (2005) by Nicholas J Horton et al.
- The Importance of Effect Magnitude Over Statistical Hypotheses (2004) by Ezra Hauer et al.
- The Inappropriateness of Significance Tests (2004) by Fiona Fidler et al.
- Neyman–pearson vs. Fisher (2003) by Raymond Hubbard et al.
- Bimodal Human Height (2002) by Mark F Schilling et al.
- Joint P and E Usage (2002) by Carl J Huberty et al.
- Addressing Pseudoreplication in Experimental Studies (2001) by Donald E Kroodsma et al.
- Spherical Horse Moving Through a Vacuum (2001) by Michael E Gorman et al. 1
- The dipsy-doodle (2001) by Michael E Gorman et al.
- The Overlap Method (2001) by Nathaniel Schenker et al.
- The Toothbrush Problem (2001) by Michael E Gorman et al. 1
- Challenges and Pitfalls in Spatial Data Mapping (1999) by Andrew Gelman et al.
- The P Value Fallacy (1999) by Steven N Goodman et al.
- Monte Carlo Methods (1997) by Alan Sokal et al.
- Absence of Evidence is Not Evidence of Absence (1995) by D. G Altman et al.
- It Does Not Seem Helpful Just to Say that All Models Are Wrong (1995) by Chris Chatfield et al.
- Embarrassignly Large Confidence Intervals (1994) by Jacob Cohen et al.
- Low Statistical Power (1994) by D Moher et al.
- NHST (1994) by Jacob Cohen et al.
- The Illusion of Attaining Improbability (1994) by Jacob Cohen et al.
- The Null Hypothesis Ritual (1994) by Jacob Cohen et al.
- Dichotomization of 2 Continuous Independent Variables (1993) by Scott E Maxwell et al.
- Neyman-Pearson vs. Fisher (1993) by Steven N Goodman et al.
- Scientific Method (1993) by Steven N Goodman et al.
- Compute Many Estimates (1992) by L Kish et al.
- The Wrong Question (1991) by John W Tukey et al.
- Non-Correct Statement (1990) by Friedrich Pukelsheim et al.
- The Ozone Hole Discovery (1990) by Robert Kandel et al.
- Decline of Power in Psychology (1962..1984) (1989) by Peter Sedlmeier et al.
- My Intellectual Superiority (1989) by Paul E Meehl et al.
- On College Professors (1989) by Paul E Meehl et al.
- People You Meet (1989) by Paul E Meehl et al.
- Recognizing Fallacies (1989) by Paul E Meehl et al.
- The Mother (1989) by Paul E Meehl et al.
- The Parents (1989) by Paul E Meehl et al.
- Balancing Realism and Purity (1988) by G D Murray et al.
- Confidence Intervals (1986) by M J Gardner et al.
- Correspondence Between Confidence Intervals and Hypothesis Tests (1986) by M J Gardner et al.
- Pseudoreplication in Experimental Studies (1984) by Stuart H Hurlbert et al.
- Sir. Ronald Fisher (1978) by Paul E Meehl et al.
- The Null Hypothesis is Always False (1978) by Paul E Meehl et al.
- Unimpressive Theories in Psychology (1978) by Paul E Meehl et al.
- Efficient Algorithms as Prime Concerns (1976) by Michael Ian Shamos et al.
- What is Importantly Wrong (1976) by George E. P. Box et al.
- Ill-Defined and well-defined Problems (1974) by Ian I. Mitroff et al.
- Public Statements (1974) by Ian I. Mitroff et al.
- The Emotionally Disinterested Scientist is a Myth (1974) by Ian I. Mitroff et al.
- The Mad Scientist Who Will Destroy the World for Knowledge (1974) by Ian I. Mitroff et al.
- Trivial Understanding of Scientific Knowledge (1974) by Ian I. Mitroff et al.
- Plot and Eye (1969) by John W Tukey et al.
- Eager-Beaver Researchers (1967) by Paul E Meehl et al.
- Investigating the Probability of Rejecting Null Hypotheses in Abnormal-Social Research (1962) by Jacob Cohen et al.
- Material Significance (1954) by J. L. Hodges et al.
- Natural Population is Ever Exactly Normal (1954) by J. L. Hodges et al.
- Convenient p=0.05 (1950) by Ronald Aylmer Fisher et al.
- Correction for Universal non-normality (1947) by R. C. Geary et al.
- Normality is a Myth (1947) by R. C. Geary et al.
- Any Series of Real Observations Does Not Actually Follow a Normal Curve (1938) by Joseph Berkson et al.
- No Black and White Balls (1938) by Joseph Berkson et al.
- Post Mortem Examination (1938) by RA Fisher et al.
- P-Value Beyond Any Usual Limit of Significance (1938) by Joseph Berkson et al. 1
- NHST (1933) by Jerzy Neyman et al.
- Several Men Have Concerned Themselves (1930) by G. A. Baker et al.
- Jittering as a Statistical Irony by Rick Wicklin et al.

### Notes (86)

- Absolute Thresholds
- Anscombe's Quartet
- Breakdown Point
- Central Tendency
- Change-point detection
- Cohen's d
- Decile
- Defensive Statistics 2
- Discretization
- Dispersion
- Eclectic Statistics 3
- ED-PELT 2
- Effect Size
- Effect Size Thresholds
- Extreme Value Theory
- False-Negative Rate
- False-Positive Rate
- Geometric Mean
- Geothmetic Meandian
- Goal-Driven Statistics 1
- Harmonic Mean
- Harrell-Davis Quantile Estimator
- Heavy Tails
- Hyndman-Fan Taxonomy
- Influence Function
- Interquartile Mean
- Kish's Effective Sample Size
- Light Tails
- Lowland Multimodality Detector
- Mann-Whitney U Test
- Mann-Whitney U Test: Edgeworth expansion 2
- Mann-Whitney U Test: Error Evaluation 2
- Mann-Whitney U Test: Löffler's Implementation 1
- Mann-Whitney U Test: Minimum meaningful statistical level 5
- Mean
- Median
- Median Absolute Deviation
- Midhinge
- Midrange
- Mode
- MP² quantile estimators 1
- Multimodality
- Navruz-Özdemir quantile estimator 3
- Nonparametric Statistics 1
- Normal Distribution
- Null hypothesis significance testing (NHST)
- Outliers
- Parametric Statistics
- Pareto Distribution
- Pareto Principle (80/20 Rule)
- Percentile
- Performance Distributions
- Power Analysis
- Power-Curve
- P² Quantile Estimator 8
- Pragmatic Statistics 1
- Probability Density Function
- p-value
- Quantile
- Quantile Absolute Deviation
- Quantile Estimator
- Quantile Function
- Quartile
- Relative Thresholds
- Robust Statistics 2
- Rousseeuw-Croux scale estimator
- Sample 1
- Sample Size
- Sampling Distribution
- Sequential Analysis
- Sfakianakis-Verginis Quantile Estimator 5
- Shamos Estimator 5
- Skewness
- Sporadic Noise
- SS-FP-NP-ES Tradeoff
- Standard Deviation
- Statistical Efficiency
- The Hodge-Lehmann Estimator 4
- Trimean
- Trimmed Harrell-Davis Quantile Estimator
- Trimmed Mean
- Trinal Thresholds
- Uniform Distribution 1
- Walsh Averages 1
- Weighted Statistics 1
- Winsorized Mean

### Papers (320)

- Guide to Effect Sizes and Confidence Intervals (2024) by Matthew B Jané et al.
- Quantile-Respectful Density Estimation Based on the Harrell-Davis Quantile Estimator (2024) by Andrey Akinshin
- Hunter: Using Change Point Detection to Hunt for Performance Regressions (2023) by Matt Fleming et al.
- On Some Non Parametric Estimators of the Quantile Density Function for a Stationary Associated ... (2023) by Yogendra P Chaubey et al.
- On Testing the Equality Between Interquartile Ranges (2023) by Luca Greco et al.
- Psychological Measures aren’t Toothbrushes (2023) by Malte Elson et al. 1
- Weighted Quantile Estimators (2023) by Andrey Akinshin
- DescTools: Tools for Descriptive Statistics (2022) by Signorell Andri
- Finite-Sample bias-correction Factors for the Median Absolute Deviation Based on the Harrell-Da... (2022) by Andrey Akinshin
- Finite-Sample Rousseeuw-Croux Scale Estimators (2022) by Andrey Akinshin
- Quantile Absolute Deviation (2022) by Andrey Akinshin
- Reldist: Relative Distribution Methods (2022) by Mark S Handcock
- Rethinking the Effective Sample Size (2022) by V Elvira et al. 1
- Robustbase: Basic Robust Statistics (2022) by Martin Maechler et al.
- Trimmed Harrell-Davis Quantile Estimator Based on the Highest Density Interval of the Given Wid... (2022) by Andrey Akinshin 1
- Fast Online Computation of the Qn Estimator with Applications to the Detection of Outliers in D... (2021) by Massimo Cafaro et al.
- Penalized Power Approach to Compare the Power of the Tests When Type I Error Probabilities Are ... (2021) by Mustafa Cavus et al.
- Probabilistic Evaluation of Quantile Estimators (2021) by Matti Pajari et al.
- A New Quantile Estimator with Weights Based on a Subsampling Approach (2020) by G"ozde Navruz et al. 3
- Investigation of finite-sample Properties of Robust Location and Scale Estimators (2020) by Chanseok Park et al. 7
- Making Decisions Under Model Misspecification (2020) by Simone Cerreia-Vioglio et al. 1
- Nonparametric Statistical Inference (2020) by Jean Dickinson Gibbons et al.
- Robust Analogs to the Coefficient of Variation (2020) by Chandima N P G Arachchige et al.
- Selective Review of Offline Change Point Detection Methods (2020) by Charles Truong et al. 3
- Statistical Consequences of Fat Tails: Real World Preasymptotics, Epistemology, and Application... (2020) by Nassim Nicholas Taleb
- The Use of Change Point Detection to Identify Software Performance Regressions in a Continuous ... (2020) by David Daly et al.
- Abandon Statistical Significance (2019) by Blakeley B. McShane et al.
- An Introduction to Second-Generation P -Values (2019) by Jeffrey D Blume et al.
- A Robust Nonparametric Measure of Effect Size Based on an Analog of Cohen's d, Plus Inferences ... (2019) by Rand Wilcox 1
- Confidence Intervals for Median Absolute Deviations (2019) by Chandima N P G Arachchige et al.
- Inferential Statistics as Descriptive Statistics: There is No Replication Crisis If We Don’t Ex... (2019) by Valentin Amrhein et al.
- Moving to a World Beyond “p<0.05” (2019) by Ronald L Wasserstein et al.
- Moving Towards the Post p<0.05 Era via the Analysis of Credibility (2019) by Robert A J Matthews
- Outlier Detection and a tail-adjusted Boxplot Based on Extreme Value Theory (2019) by Shrijita Bhattacharya et al.
- Outlier detection: How to Threshold Outlier scores? (2019) by Jiawei Yang et al. 1
- Performance of Some Estimators of Relative Variability (2019) by Raydonal Ospina et al.
- Robust Statistical Methods with R (2019) by Jana Jureckova et al.
- Sequential Monte Carlo as Approximate sampling: Bounds, Adaptive Resampling via infinity-ESS, a... (2019) by Jonathan H Huggins et al. 1
- The P Value and Statistical significance: Misunderstandings, Explanations, Challenges, and Alte... (2019) by Chittaranjan Andrade
- A Generic Approach to Nonparametric Function Estimation with Mixed Data (2018) by Thomas Nagler 2
- A Practical Implementation of Weighted Kernel Density Estimation for Handling Shape Constraints (2018) by Mark Anthony Wolters et al.
- Asymptotic Analysis of the Jittering Kernel Density Estimator (2018) by Thomas Nagler 1
- Beyond ‘significance’: Principles and Practice of the Analysis of Credibility (2018) by Robert A J Matthews
- Case for Omitting Tied Observations in the two-sample t-test and the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney Test (2018) by Monnie McGee et al.
- Justify Your Alpha (2018) by Daniel Lakens et al.
- Kernel Density Estimation and Its Application (2018) by Stanisław Węglarczyk et al.
- Modi: Multivariate Outlier Detection and Imputation for Incomplete Survey Data (2018) by Beat Hulliger
- Nonparametric statistics: Theory and Methods (2018) by J V Deshpande et al. 1
- Second-Generation p-values: Improved rigor, Reproducibility, & Transparency in Statistical Anal... (2018) by Jeffrey D Blume et al.
- The Bayesian New Statistics: Hypothesis testing, Estimation, Meta-Analysis, and Power Analysis ... (2018) by John K Kruschke et al.
- The Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney Procedure Fails as a Test of Medians (2018) by George W Divine et al.
- A Tutorial on Fisher Information (2017) by Alexander Ly et al.
- A Tutorial on Kernel Density Estimation and Recent Advances (2017) by Yen-Chi Chen
- Fast Deterministic Selection (2017) by Andrei Alexandrescu et al.
- The Earth is Flat (p>0.05): Significance Thresholds and the Crisis of Unreplicable Research (2017) by Valentin Amrhein et al.
- The Failure of Null Hypothesis Significance Testing When Studying Incremental Changes, and What... (2017) by Andrew Gelman
- A Computationally Efficient Nonparametric Approach for Changepoint Detection (2016) by Kaylea Haynes et al. 2
- Detecting and Avoiding Likely false‐positive findings – a Practical Guide (2016) by Wolfgang Forstmeier et al.
- Robust Estimates of Location Survey and Advances (2016) by David F Andrews et al.
- Statistical tests, P values, Confidence intervals, and power: A Guide to Misinterpretations (2016) by Sander Greenland et al.
- The ASA Statement on p-Values: Context, Process, and Purpose (2016) by Ronald L. Wasserstein et al.
- Effects of Temperature and Humidity on Radio Signal Strength in Outdoor Wireless Sensor Network... (2015) by Jari Luomala et al.
- Fisher, Neyman-Pearson or NHST? A Tutorial for Teaching Data Testing (2015) by Jose D Perezgonzalez
- How Much Faster is Fast Enough?: User Perception of Latency & Latency Improvements in Direc... (2015) by Jonathan Deber et al.
- How to Test Hypotheses If You Must (2015) by Andrew P Grieve
- Kernel Estimator and Bandwidth Selection for Density and Its Derivatives (2015) by Arsalane Chouaib Guidoum 1
- Nonlinear Dynamics and chaos: With Applications to physics, Biology, Chemistry, and Engineering (2015) by Steven H Strogatz
- Nonparametric Statistical Methods (2015) by Myles Hollander et al.
- The Fallacy of Placing Confidence in Confidence Intervals (2015) by Richard D. Morey et al.
- The Search for Significance: A Few Peculiarities in the Distribution of P Values in Experimenta... (2015) by Michał Krawczyk et al.
- Time-Efficient Algorithms for Robust Estimators of Location, Scale, Symmetry, and Tail Heavines... (2015) by Wouter Gelade et al.
- Beyond Cohen's d: Alternative Effect Size Measures for Between-Subject Designs (2014) by Chao-Ying Joanne Peng et al.
- Beyond Power Calculations: Assessing Type S (Sign) And Type M (Magnitude) Errors (2014) by Andrew Gelman et al.
- Comparing Two Independent Groups via the Lower and Upper Quantiles (2014) by Rand R Wilcox et al.
- Fast Highly Efficient and Robust one-step M-estimators of Scale Based on Qn (2014) by Pavel O Smirnov et al.
- Finite-Sample Bias-Correction Factors for the Median Absolute Deviation (2014) by Kevin Hayes 2
- How Much Does Memory Layout Impact performance? A Wide Study (2014) by Augusto Born de Oliveira et al.
- Huff and Puff (2014) by Alex Reinhart 2
- Nonparametric Maximum Likelihood Approach to Multiple change-point Problems (2014) by Changliang Zou et al.
- Performing high-powered Studies Efficiently with Sequential analyses: Sequential Analyses (2014) by Daniël Lakens
- The Availability of Research Data Declines Rapidly with Article Age (2014) by Timothy H. Vines et al.
- Tree Cover Bimodality in Savannas and Forests Emerging from the Switching Between Two Fire Dyna... (2014) by Carlo De Michele et al.
- A Simple Generalisation of the Hill Estimator (2013) by M Fátima Brilhante et al.
- Bandwidth Selection for Kernel Density estimation: A Review of Fully Automatic Selectors (2013) by Nils-Bastian Heidenreich et al. 1
- Detecting outliers: Do Not Use Standard Deviation Around the mean, Use Absolute Deviation Aroun... (2013) by Christophe Leys et al. 1
- Evaluation of Excess Significance Bias in Animal Studies of Neurological Diseases (2013) by Konstantinos K. Tsilidis et al.
- Good Things Peak in pairs: A Note on the Bimodality Coefficient (2013) by Roland Pfister et al.
- High Impact = High Statistical Standards? Not Necessarily so (2013) by Patrizio E Tressoldi et al.
- How Confidence Intervals Become Confusion Intervals (2013) by James McCormack et al.
- Non-Publication of Large Randomized Clinical trials: Cross Sectional Analysis (2013) by C. W. Jones et al.
- On the Reproducibility of science: Unique Identification of Research Resources in the Biomedica... (2013) by Nicole A. Vasilevsky et al.
- Power failure: Why Small Sample Size Undermines the Reliability of Neuroscience (2013) by Katherine S Button et al.
- Robust and scale-free Effect Sizes for non-Normal two-sample comparisons, with Applications in ... (2013) by David A Wooff et al.
- Ten Simple Rules for Reproducible Computational Research (2013) by Geir Kjetil Sandve et al.
- US Studies May Overestimate Effect Sizes in Softer Research (2013) by Daniele Fanelli et al.
- A Comprehensive Review of Reporting Practices in Psychological journals: Are Effect Sizes Reall... (2012) by Astrid Fritz et al.
- An Agenda for Purely Confirmatory Research (2012) by Eric-Jan Wagenmakers et al.
- A Robust Scale Estimator Based on Pairwise Means (2012) by Garth Tarr et al.
- Assessing Bimodality to Detect the Presence of a Dual Cognitive Process (2012) by Jonathan B. Freeman et al.
- Bandwidth Selection in Nonparametric Kernel Estimation (2012) by Anja Schindler 1
- Effect Sizes for research: Univariate and Multivariate Applications (2012) by Robert J Grissom et al.
- Measuring the Prevalence of Questionable Research Practices with Incentives for Truth Telling (2012) by Leslie K John et al.
- Nonparametric Statistical tests: A Computational Approach (2012) by Markus Neuhäuser
- Optimal Detection of Changepoints with a Linear Computational Cost (2012) by R. Killick et al.
- Voodoo and Circularity Errors (2012) by Edward Vul et al.
- What Hypotheses Do “Nonparametric” Two-Group Tests Actually Test? (2012) by Ronán M Conroy
- Erroneous Analyses of Interactions in neuroscience: A Problem of Significance (2011) by Sander Nieuwenhuis et al.
- False-Positive Psychology: Undisclosed Flexibility in Data Collection and Analysis Allows Prese... (2011) by Joseph P Simmons et al.
- Finite Sample Correction Factors for Several Simple Robust Estimators of Normal Standard Deviat... (2011) by Dennis C Williams 1
- First Among others? Cohen's D vs. Alternative Standardized Mean Group Difference Measures (2011) by Cahan S et al.
- Magnitude of Effects in Clinical Trials Published in high-impact General Medical Journals (2011) by Konstantinos CM Siontis et al. 1
- Measuring Effect size: A Robust Heteroscedastic Approach for Two or More Groups (2011) by Wilcox R R et al.
- Nonparametric Confidence Intervals for a Shift Parameter (2011) by E. L. Lehmann
- Standard Methods for Point Estimation of Indicators on Social Exclusion and Poverty Using the R... (2011) by Matthias Templ et al.
- The Quality of Registration of Clinical Trials (2011) by Roderik F. Viergever et al.
- Voodoo Correlations Are Everywhere—Not Only in Neuroscience (2011) by Klaus Fiedler
- A Note on the Hodges–Lehmann Estimator (2010) by Gerd K Rosenkranz
- Developing Effect Sizes for Non-Normal Data in Two-SampleComparison Studies (2010) by Amin Jamalzadeh
- Dos and don'ts of Reduced chi-squared (2010) by Rene Andrae et al.
- Reboxetine for Acute Treatment of Major depression: Systematic Review and meta-analysis of Publ... (2010) by D. Eyding et al.
- Selected Methods of Interval Estimation of the median. The Analysis of Accuracy of Estimation (2010) by Aleksandra Baszczyńska et al.
- Split-And-Merge Procedure for Image Segmentation Using Bimodality Detection Approach (2010) by D. Chaudhuri et al.
- Testing for the Presence of Positive-Outcome Bias in Peer Review: A Randomized Controlled Trial (2010) by Gwendolyn B. Emerson et al.
- Testing Statistical Hypotheses of Equivalence and Noninferiority (2010) by Stefan Wellek
- The Problem of Pseudoreplication in Neuroscientific studies: Is It Affecting Your analysis? (2010) by Stanley E Lazic
- To Explain or to Predict? (2010) by Galit Shmueli
- Trial Factors for the Look Elsewhere Effect in High Energy Physics (2010) by Eilam Gross et al.
- Computing Effect Size Measures with Vista (2009) by Ledesma R D et al.
- Inadequate Statistical Power to Detect Clinically Significant Differences in Adverse Event Rate... (2009) by Ruth Tsang et al.
- Neural Correlates of Interspecies Perspective Taking in the post-mortem Atlantic Salmon: An Arg... (2009) by Craig M Bennett et al.
- Of beauty, Sex, and power: Statistical Challenges in Estimating Small Effects (2009) by A Gelman et al.
- On a Simple Measure of Dominance (2009) by Anderson C L et al.
- Robust Statistics (2009) by Peter J Huber et al.
- The Bimodality Index: A Criterion for Discovering and Ranking Bimodal Signatures from Cancer Ge... (2009) by Jing Wang et al.
- A Dirty dozen: Twelve p-value Misconceptions (2008) by Steven Goodman
- A First Course in Order Statistics (2008) by Barry C Arnold et al. 1
- A Likelihood Ratio Test for Bimodality in two-component Mixtures with Application to Regional I... (2008) by Hajo Holzmann et al.
- Analysis of Bimodality in Histograms Formed from GALLEX and GNO Solar Neutrino Data (2008) by P. A. Sturrock
- A New Family of Nonparametric Quantile Estimators (2008) by Michael E Sfakianakis et al. 3
- Consequences of Dichotomization (2008) by Valerii Fedorov et al.
- Discrepancies in Sample Size Calculations and Data Analyses Reported in Randomised trials: Comp... (2008) by A.-W. Chan et al.
- Sample Size Planning for Statistical Power and Accuracy in Parameter Estimation (2008) by Scott E Maxwell et al.
- Selective Publication of Antidepressant Trials and Its Influence on Apparent Efficacy (2008) by Erick H. Turner et al.
- Truth, Damn Truth, and Statistics (2008) by Paul F Velleman
- Why Most Discovered True Associations Are Inflated (2008) by John PA Ioannidis
- A Method for Selecting the Bin Size of a Time Histogram (2007) by Hideaki Shimazaki et al.
- An Exploratory Test for an Excess of Significant Findings (2007) by John PA Ioannidis et al.
- A Practical Solution to the Pervasive Problems of P Values (2007) by Eric-Jan Wagenmakers
- Bandwidth Selection for Weighted Kernel Density Estimation (2007) by Bin Wang et al.
- Correcting a Significance Test for Clustering (2007) by Larry V Hedges
- Estimating the Impact of State Policies and Institutions with Mixed-Level Data (2007) by David M Primo et al.
- Is Molecular Profiling Ready for Use in Clinical Decision Making? (2007) by John PA Ioannidis 1
- Kernel Density Estimator (2007) by Zdravko Botev
- Stat 5102 Notes: Nonparametric Tests and Confidence Intervals (2007) by Charles J Geyer
- Statistical power: An Historical Introduction (2007) by Descôteaux J
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- Do Studies of Statistical Power Have an Effect on the Power of studies? (1989) by Peter Sedlmeier et al.
- Paul E. Meehl (Autobiography) (1989) by Paul E Meehl et al.
- The Task of a Statistical Referee (1988) by G D Murray
- Biased and Unbiased Cross-Validation in Density Estimation (1987) by David W. Scott et al. 1
- Impact of Multiple Comparisons in Randomized Clinical Trials (1987) by David Gary Smith et al.
- Positive Affect Facilitates Creative Problem Solving (1987) by Alice M Isen et al.
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- Density Estimation for Statistics and Data Analysis (1986) by B. W. Silverman 1
- Asymptotic Equivalence of the Harrell-Davis Median Estimator and the Sample Median (1985) by Carl N Yoshizawa et al. 1
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- Graphical Methods for Data Analysis (1983) by John M Chambers et al.
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- Using Kernel Density Estimates to Investigate Multimodality (1981) by B. W. Silverman
- Density Estimation and Bump-Hunting by the Penalized Likelihood Method Exemplified by Scatterin... (1980) by I. J. Good et al.
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- An Algorithm for Assessing Bimodality vs. Unimodality in a Univariate Distribution (1979) by Ronald P. Larkin
- On Optimal and data-based Histograms (1979) by David W. Scott
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- Some Graphical Methods in statistics: A Review and Some Extensions (1977) by Doksum K A
- Descriptive Statistics for Nonparametric Models III: Dispersion (1976) by Peter J Bickel et al.
- Geometry and Statistics: Problems at the Interface (1976) by Michael Ian Shamos 1
- On the Choice of Smoothing Parameters for Parzen Estimators of Probability Density Functions (1976) by Robert P.W. Duin 1
- Plotting with Confidence – Graphical Comparisons of 2 Populations (1976) by Doksum K A et al. 1
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- A Simple General Approach to Inference about the Tail of a Distribution (1975) by Bruce M Hill
- Nonparametrics: Statistical Methods Based on Ranks (1975) by Erich L Lehmann et al.
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- Studies in the History of Probability and Statistics. XXXII: Laplace, Fisher and the Discovery ... (1973) by Stephen M Stigler
- On the Modes of a Mixture of Two Normal Distributions (1970) by Javad Behboodian
- Analyzing data: Sanctification or Detective work? (1969) by John W Tukey
- On the Ratio of Two Correlated Normal Random Variables (1969) by Hinkley D V
- Probability Plotting Methods for the Analysis of Data (1968) by Wilk M B et al.
- Estimation in Mixtures of Two Normal Distributions (1967) by A. Clifford Cohen
- Theory-Testing in Psychology and physics: A Methodological Paradox (1967) by Paul E Meehl
- Estimation of Parameters for a Mixture of Normal Distributions (1966) by Victor Hasselblad
- Notes on the Analysis of Mixed Frequency Distributions (1966) by D. R. Cox
- On Robust Procedures (1966) by Joseph L Gastwirth
- Survey Sampling (1965) by L Kish 3
- Genesis of Bimodal Distributions (1964) by Isidore Eisenberger
- Behavioral Study of Obedience (1963) by Stanley Milgram
- Estimates of Location Based on Rank Tests (1963) by J L Hodges et al. 1
- Information for Estimating the Proportions in Mixtures of Exponential and Normal Distributions (1963) by Bruce M. Hill
- On the Estimation of Relative Potency in Dilution (-Direct) Assays by Distribution-Free Methods (1963) by Pranab Kumar Sen 1
- The Statistical Power of abnormal-social Psychological research: A Review (1962) by Jacob Cohen
- Variance of the Median of Small Samples from Several Special Populations (1960) by Paul R Rider
- Remarks on Some Nonparametric Estimates of a Density Function (1956) by Murray Rosenblatt
- Statistical Methods and Scientific Inference (1956) by Ronald A Fisher
- Testing the Approximate Validity of Statistical Hypotheses (1954) by J. L. Hodges et al.
- A Statistical Distribution Function of Wide Applicability (1951) by Weibull W
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- Statistical Methods for Research Workers (1950) by Ronald Aylmer Fisher
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- Testing for Normality (1947) by R. C. Geary
- Presidential Address by Professor R.A. Fisher (1938) by RA Fisher
- Some Difficulties of Interpretation Encountered in the Application of the Chi-Square Test (1938) by Joseph Berkson 1
- On the Problem of the Most Efficient Tests of Statistical Hypotheses (1933) by Jerzy Neyman et al.
- Transformations of Bimodal Distriburtions (1930) by G. A. Baker
- The Choice of a Class Interval (1926) by Herbert A. Sturges
- On the Mathematical Foundations of Theoretical Statistics (1922) by Ronald A Fisher
- Observations Weighted According to Order (1920) by PJ Daniell

### Posts (202)

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- Quantile-Respectful Density Estimation and Trimming (2024-03-26)
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- Effect Sizes and Asymmetry (2024-03-12)
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- Case Study: A City Social Survey (2024-02-20) 1
- Simplifying adjustments of confidence levels and practical significance thresholds (2024-02-13)
- Degrees of practical significance (2024-02-06)
- Weighted Mann-Whitney U test, Part 3 (2024-01-30)
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- Eclectic statistics (2024-01-16)
- Change Point Detection and Recent Changes (2024-01-09)
- Merging extended P² quantile estimators, Part 1 (2024-01-02)
- Hodges-Lehmann ratio estimator vs. Bhattacharyya's scale ratio estimator (2023-12-26)
- Finite-sample Gaussian efficiency: Shamos vs. Rousseeuw-Croux Qn scale estimators (2023-12-19)
- Two-pass change point detection for temporary interval condensation (2023-12-12)
- Inconsistent violin plots (2023-12-05)
- Sporadic noise problem in change point detection (2023-11-28)
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- Median vs. Hodges-Lehmann: compare efficiency under heavy-tailedness (2023-11-14) 1
- Thoughts about robustness and efficiency (2023-11-07) 1
- Finite-sample Gaussian efficiency: Quantile absolute deviation vs. Rousseeuw-Croux scale estima... (2023-10-31) 1
- Mann-Whitney U test and heteroscedasticity (2023-10-24) 1
- Exploring the power curve of the Ansari-Bradley test (2023-10-17) 1
- Exploring the power curve of the Lepage test (2023-10-10)
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- Central limit theorem and log-normal distribution (2023-09-19)
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- Weighted Mann-Whitney U test, Part 2 (2023-08-22)
- Exploring the power curve of the Cucconi test (2023-08-15) 1
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- Multimodal distributions and effect size (2023-07-18)
- Unobvious limitations of R *signrank Wilcoxon Signed Rank functions (2023-07-11)
- Weighted Mann-Whitney U test, Part 1 (2023-07-04) 2
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- Introducing the defensive statistics (2023-06-13) 1
- Edgeworth expansion for the Mann-Whitney U test, Part 2: increased accuracy (2023-06-06) 2
- Edgeworth expansion for the Mann-Whitney U test (2023-05-30) 2
- Confusing tie correction in the classic Mann-Whitney U test implementation (2023-05-23) 2
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- When Python's Mann-Whitney U test returns extremely distorted p-values (2023-05-02) 1
- When R's Mann-Whitney U test returns extremely distorted p-values (2023-04-25) 4
- Preprint announcement: 'Weighted quantile estimators' (2023-04-18) 3
- Rethinking Type I/II error rates with power curves (2023-04-11) 2
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- Weighted modification of the Hodges-Lehmann location estimator (2023-03-28) 3
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- Comparing statistical power of the Mann-Whitney U test and the Brunner-Munzel test (2023-03-07)
- p-value distribution of the Mann–Whitney U test in the finite case (2023-02-28) 1
- Corner case of the Brunner–Munzel test (2023-02-21) 1
- Examples of the Mann–Whitney U test misuse cases (2023-02-14)
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- Nonparametric effect size: Cohen's d vs. Glass's delta (2023-01-24)
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- Trimmed Hodges-Lehmann location estimator, Part 2: Gaussian efficiency (2023-01-10)
- Trimmed Hodges-Lehmann location estimator, Part 1: breakdown point (2023-01-03) 1
- Median of the shifts vs. shift of the medians, Part 2: Gaussian efficiency (2022-12-27) 1
- Median of the shifts vs. shift of the medians, Part 1 (2022-12-20) 2
- Resistance to the low-density regions: the Hodges-Lehmann location estimator (2022-12-13) 1
- Kernel density estimation boundary correction: reflection (ggplot2 v3.4.0) (2022-12-06)
- Sheather & Jones vs. unbiased cross-validation (2022-11-29)
- Resistance to the low-density regions: the Harrell-Davis median (2022-11-22) 1
- Resistance to the low-density regions: the mean and the median (2022-11-15) 2
- Finite-sample Gaussian efficiency of the trimmed Harrell-Davis median estimator (2022-11-08)
- Finite-sample Gaussian efficiency of the Harrell-Davis median estimator (2022-11-01) 1
- Weighted quantile estimation for a weighted mixture distribution (2022-10-25)
- Preprint announcement: 'Finite-sample Rousseeuw-Croux scale estimators' (2022-10-18)
- Sensitivity curve of the Harrell-Davis quantile estimator, Part 3 (2022-10-11)
- Sensitivity curve of the Harrell-Davis quantile estimator, Part 2 (2022-10-04) 1
- Sensitivity curve of the Harrell-Davis quantile estimator, Part 1 (2022-09-27) 2
- Weighted quantile estimators for exponential smoothing and mixture distributions (2022-09-20)
- The Huggins-Roy family of effective sample sizes (2022-09-13) 1
- Finite-sample bias correction factors for Rousseeuw-Croux scale estimators (2022-09-06)
- Preprint announcement: 'Quantile absolute deviation' (2022-09-01) 1
- Standard trimmed Harrell-Davis median estimator (2022-08-31)
- Optimal quantile absolute deviation (2022-08-30)
- Quantile absolute deviation of the Pareto distribution (2022-08-29)
- Quantile absolute deviation of the Exponential distribution (2022-08-26)
- Quantile absolute deviation of the Uniform distribution (2022-08-25)
- Quantile absolute deviation of the Normal distribution (2022-08-24) 1
- Standard quantile absolute deviation (2022-08-23) 1
- Asymptotic Gaussian efficiency of the quantile absolute deviation (2022-08-16) 2
- Finite-sample efficiency of the Rousseeuw-Croux estimators (2022-08-09) 1
- Caveats of using the median absolute deviation (2022-08-02)
- Preprint announcement: 'Finite-sample bias-correction factors for the median absolute deviation... (2022-07-26) 1
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- Middle non-zero quantile absolute deviation, Part 2 (2022-06-28) 3
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- Expected value of the minimum of two standard half-normal distributions (2022-05-03) 1
- Unbiased median absolute deviation for n=2 (2022-04-26)
- Weighted trimmed Harrell-Davis quantile estimator (2022-04-19)
- Minimum meaningful statistical level for the Mann–Whitney U test (2022-04-12)
- Fence-based outlier detectors, Part 2 (2022-04-05)
- Fence-based outlier detectors, Part 1 (2022-03-29) 1
- Publication announcement: 'Trimmed Harrell-Davis quantile estimator based on the highest densit... (2022-03-22) 5
- Asymmetric decile-based outlier detector, Part 2 (2022-03-15) 2
- Asymmetric decile-based outlier detector, Part 1 (2022-03-08) 2
- Probability of observing outliers using Tukey's fences (2022-03-01) 2
- Gamma effect size powered by the middle non-zero quantile absolute deviation (2022-02-22)
- Middle non-zero quantile absolute deviation (2022-02-15) 4
- Unbiased median absolute deviation based on the trimmed Harrell-Davis quantile estimator (2022-02-08) 2
- Median absolute deviation vs. Shamos estimator (2022-02-01)
- Moving extended P² quantile estimator (2022-01-25)
- Extended P² quantile estimator (2022-01-18) 2
- P² quantile estimator marker adjusting order (2022-01-11) 1
- P² quantile estimator initialization strategy (2022-01-04) 2
- Misleading geometric mean (2021-12-28)
- Matching quantile sets using likelihood based on the binomial coefficients (2021-12-21)
- Ratio function vs. ratio distribution (2021-12-14) 1
- Shift function vs. shift distribution (2021-12-07) 2
- Preprint announcement: 'Trimmed Harrell-Davis quantile estimator based on the highest density i... (2021-11-30) 4
- Non-normal median sampling distribution (2021-11-23) 1
- Misleading kurtosis (2021-11-16)
- Misleading skewness (2021-11-09) 1
- Greenwald-Khanna quantile estimator (2021-11-02)
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- Quantile estimators based on k order statistics, Part 8: Winsorized Harrell-Davis quantile esti... (2021-09-21)
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- Quantile estimators based on k order statistics, Part 6: Continuous trimmed Harrell-Davis quant... (2021-09-07) 1
- Quantile estimators based on k order statistics, Part 5: Improving trimmed Harrell-Davis quanti... (2021-08-31) 3
- Quantile estimators based on k order statistics, Part 4: Adopting trimmed Harrell-Davis quantil... (2021-08-24) 1
- Quantile estimators based on k order statistics, Part 3: Playing with the Beta function (2021-08-17) 2
- Quantile estimators based on k order statistics, Part 2: Extending Hyndman-Fan equations (2021-08-10) 4
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- Optimal threshold of the trimmed Harrell-Davis quantile estimator (2021-07-20) 6
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- Partial binning compression of performance series (2021-06-29)
- Calculating gamma effect size for samples with zero median absolute deviation (2021-06-22) 1
- Discrete performance distributions (2021-06-15) 5
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- Quantile exponential smoothing (2021-05-04) 3
- Improving quantile-respectful density estimation for discrete distributions using jittering (2021-04-27) 1
- How to build a smooth density estimation for a discrete sample using jittering (2021-04-20) 2
- Kernel density estimation and discrete values (2021-04-13) 3
- Efficiency of the winsorized and trimmed Harrell-Davis quantile estimators (2021-04-06) 6
- Trimmed modification of the Harrell-Davis quantile estimator (2021-03-30) 11
- Efficiency of the Harrell-Davis quantile estimator (2021-03-23) 4
- Navruz-Özdemir quantile estimator (2021-03-16) 1
- Sfakianakis-Verginis quantile estimator (2021-03-09) 1
- Winsorized modification of the Harrell-Davis quantile estimator (2021-03-02) 8
- Misleading standard deviation (2021-02-23) 2
- Unbiased median absolute deviation based on the Harrell-Davis quantile estimator (2021-02-16) 5
- Unbiased median absolute deviation (2021-02-09) 7
- Comparing distribution quantiles using gamma effect size (2021-02-02) 1
- A single outlier could completely distort your Cohen's d value (2021-01-26) 1
- Better moving quantile estimations using the partitioning heaps (2021-01-19) 1
- MP² quantile estimator: estimating the moving median without storing values (2021-01-12)
- Case study: Accuracy of the MAD estimation using the Harrell-Davis quantile estimator (Gumbel d... (2021-01-05)
- Fast implementation of the moving quantile based on the partitioning heaps (2020-12-29) 2
- Coverage of quantile confidence intervals (2020-12-22) 1
- Statistical approaches for performance analysis (2020-12-15)
- Quantile confidence intervals for weighted samples (2020-12-08) 5
- Quantile absolute deviation: estimating statistical dispersion around quantiles (2020-12-01) 11
- P² quantile estimator: estimating the median without storing values (2020-11-24) 1
- Plain-text summary notation for multimodal distributions (2020-11-17) 1
- Intermodal outliers (2020-11-10) 2
- Lowland multimodality detection (2020-11-03) 11
- Quantile-respectful density estimation based on the Harrell-Davis quantile estimator (2020-10-27) 9
- Misleading histograms (2020-10-20) 4
- The importance of kernel density estimation bandwidth (2020-10-13) 8
- The median absolute deviation value of the Gumbel distribution (2020-10-06) 2
- Weighted quantile estimators (2020-09-29) 8
- Nonparametric Cohen's d-consistent effect size (2020-06-25) 8
- DoubleMAD outlier detector based on the Harrell-Davis quantile estimator (2020-06-22) 2
- Distribution comparison via the shift and ratio functions (2019-10-11) 6
- Normality is a myth (2019-10-09)
- Implementation of an efficient algorithm for changepoint detection: ED-PELT (2019-10-07)
- Reflecting on performance testing (2017-08-01)

### References (6)

- Defensive Statistics 2
- Eclectic Statistics 3
- Nonparametric Statistics 1
- Perfology 3
- Pragmatic Statistics 1
- Robust Statistics 2

### Tools (2)

### Web (14)

- How NASA didn’t Discover the Hole in the Ozone Layer (2023-09-29) by Rob J Hyndman 1
- 3 Easy Ways to Obtain Cohen’s d and Its CI by Bob C-J
- Bias & Bootstrap Bias Correction by Guillaume Rousselet
- Cohen’s d is Biased by Guillaume Rousselet
- Frequency Trails: Modes and Modality by Brendan Gregg 1
- Investigating Outliers by Farhana Ismail 1
- KPTI/KAISER Meltdown Initial Performance Regressions by Brendan Gregg
- Omitting Outliers by Rob J Hyndman 1
- Surely God Loves 51 km/h Nearly as Much as 49 km/h? by Daniel Lakens
- The Russian Roulette: An Unbiased Estimator of the Limit by Fabian Pedregosa
- To Jitter or Not to jitter: That is the Question by Rick Wicklin
- Using the Median Absolute Deviation to Find Outliers 1
- What did NASA know? And When did They Know it? by Gavin Schmidtt 1
- Why Software Projects Take Longer Than You think: A Statistical Model · by Erik Bernhardsson